Thursday, 6 March 2014

AN INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC FARMING METHODS

India had ancient wisdom of farming since beginning of human civilization. It came from enlightened Rishis who lived in forests and understood all the rhythms of nature. One of these great rishis was Parashara but there were many others who taught the art and science of cultivation as per Vedic science. Vedic India was essentially agricultural India. After conquering the fertile land of India, the Aryans settled down and commenced cultivation and animal husbandry on the Indo-Gangetic plains of northern India. The very name Arya, by which Aryan conquerors of India have distinguished themselves from the aborigines, is said to be derived from the root, which means 'to cultivate'. Agriculture was the most important industry and occupation of the people as also the biggest source of income of the society and state. Agricultural heritage denotes the values and traditional practices adopted in ancient India, which are more relevent for present day system. Krishi Parashara authored by Maharshi Parashara, grandson of Maharshi Vashishtha, consists of 243 verses. It is the theory of agriculture expounded in such manner that the farmers would benefit by its application. This treatise includes observations on all aspects of agriculture such as meteorological observations relating to agriculture, management of agriculture, management of cattle, agricultural tools, seed collection and preservation, ploughing and all the agricultural processes involved right from preparing fields  to harvesting and storage of crops.

The treatise advocates a symbiotic relationship, organic farming techniques, crop management, hollistic farming, or sustainable use of available materials. 

Even in the most deserted of soils one can revive with these methods below.
(For cow it is recommended to use traditional cow of India not the hybrids found mostly outside of India.)

ANGARA PREPARATION
Angara is an earthworm seeding preparation. To make it’s selection easy one uses soil from beneath a Banyan tree which has ample fruits and very fertile root systems including the roots that drop which have fertility promoting substances (for man and soil). If Banyan trees are not available or the soil beneath your Banyans is too dry to allow earthworms then looks for other earthworm rich soil to prepare the angara from. You can also start an earthworm cultivation program if the above is not available or possible.
15kg soil from the base of a banyan tree (per acre of farmland)
If you are in an area where the soil is hard packed under the Banyan trees then use soil from places where earthworms are present during the rainy season. The soil does not have to have live earthworms per say.
COATING OF SEEDS BEFORE PLANTING
Coat all seeds with honey and ghee mixture 1:1 before sowing
The coating of seeds with honey and ghee is given by the Rishis. This provides a powerful boost to the potencies of the seeds and helps them germinate and gives a crop that is strong and resistant to disease for it’s entire life.
BULB PREPARATION
Coat all bulbs with wet cow dung before sowing
AMRITPANI
This is a special herbal nectar water that is fed to the soil to improve it’s nutrition and bring more vitality (prana) to the soil. 
Use 200 litres of AMRITPANI per acre of farm land
250g pure cows ghee from indigenous cows
500g of organic raw unheated honey
10kg of fresh cow dung from indigenous cows
200 litres of water
Procedure:
Mix the ghee and the dung first well
Blend the honey into this mixture
Add the 200l water stirring all the time
How to use:
Plant sugarcane, turmeric, ginger after dipping into the amritpani
For all seedlings dip the roots into amritpani before planting
When watering crops mix amritpani in stirring all the time
When planting fruit trees, wet around the area with amritpani
Notes:

If the soil is very salty and of poor quality use Amritpani more frequently with extra doses.

SEED DRESSING PASTE
Mix ANGARA with AMRITPANI making it into a thick paste.
When planting any hard seeds such s rice, wheat, corn, okra etc., mix the paste with the seeds in a sifting pan and keep on rotating the pan till the seeds are well coated with the paste. Dry the seeds in the shade and use as needed.
For soft seeds such as mung etc. sprinkle the paste lightly on the seeds and use immediately.

COW URINE AND NEEM
Keep bottles of cow urine (from indigenous cows) in sunlight and mix with neem extract (see below) for spraying crop as a preventative measure for insects. Mix 150ml of the COW URINE NEEM EXTRACT solution in 15l of water. 60l of this solution is enough for 1 acre.
NEEM EXTRACT
Soak 14-20kg of small bunches of neem branches in 150-200l of water. Keep in the shade for 4 days. You can also dilute this with water after filtration if required.
If neem leaves are not available take 4-5kg of neem oil cake and soak, filter and dilute as above.
Cow urine and neem spray is an effective anti-pest measure.
BUTTERMILK
For nightshades and cowpea you can spray the leaf with sour buttermilk with neem extract.
MULCHING
Mulch can be made from help plants that are sowed a few months before the main crop. Also sugar cane bagasse can be used as a much. Mulching is very important.
PEST CONTROL
Cow urine from indigenous cow breeds is an excellent pest control method. Spray it weekly once as a preventative measure. If you store it in glass bottles for some time the potency will improve. You can keep the bottles in sunlight.
To make a spray solution dilute 20% cow urine and 80% water and spray weekly even if the plants are healthy as a preventative measure.
Neem extract mixed with cow urine is even more effective for pest control.
To prepare the neem extract proceed as follows:
Soak 20kg of neem branch bunches in 200l of water
Allow this to stand in shade for 4 days
Filter and dilute with water 1:1 (it can also be used neat)
Note: If neem leaves are not available you can use 4-5kg of neem oil cake.

You can alternate with the cow urine and neem extract preparations for pest control and for treating all sorts of plant diseases.
Buttermilk can be used with neem extract and cow urine for leaf curl disease.
Embelia Rives decoction:
Boil 250g of embelia rives berries with 2l of water till it has reduced to 20%
Dilute 1:10 with water to prepare a herbal spray
Use this for all fruit crops it helps produce healthy produce.
Orris root decoction:
Boil 250g of Verkhand pieces with 2l of water till reduced 20%
Dilute in 200l of water and feed it to the soil through irrigation water
This can be used to keep snakes and scopions out of the farm and also to prevent white grubs from sugar cane crops.
Smoke Treatment:
To manage white fly you can burn organic matter near the crop so the winds will blow it over the farm.
Units of measure: 
1 acre = 4 046.85642 m2 vis 63m x 63m
Crops  
Dressing Methods 
Wheat, jawar, rice and cotton
Mix a small amount of muck of the muck with the seeds and gently shake in a flat pan such that the seeds get a thin coat of the muck. Dry these in shade and use as per the convenience at proper planting time. 
Lentils like tuvar, moong, chawli, masur, matki, gram, soybean, ground-nut etc.
Seeds are lightly sprinkled with the Angara Amrutpani muck and immediately sown.
Turmeric, sugarcane, ginger and potato
Dip the seed in Amrutpani before planting. Sprinkle the angara on the soil.
Chilli, onion, cabbage, cauliflower, tobacco 
These seeds must not be directly dressed with the Angara - Amrutpani mixture. The angara is spread on the seed beds before seeding and the Amrutpani is mixed with the water used for wetting the beds or into the irrigation water for the bed. However, while transplanting dip root portion of the seedlings into Amrutpani.

Whether the Vaidic Aryans came to INDIA, from outside, or they are the original natives of this country, may be a point of difference. But, no doubt, they stayed in one place, and were a disciplined, organised Society. The main source of their living was farming and animal - breeding. They are described as Farmers, in RIGVEDA. The Aryans, gave a lot of importance to Agriculture. The Vaidic advice is - “Get rid of gambling, and learn the Art of Farming. “Akshairya Divyaha Krushimit Krushaswaha”. (RIGV. 10/347).
THE FIELD (Kshetra (Khet))
The word ‘Kshetra Khet’ in RIGVEDA, clearly indicates that different types of Fields, were in existence, (RIG. 10, 33, 6). In some places, it represents ‘Agricultural Land’ (RIG. 1, 100, 18). Its meaning becomes clear, in ATHARV - VEDA, and after that.

The fields were of two types - AGRICULTURAL (Apnaswati) (Productive), and NON-AGRICULTURAL (Artana) (RIG. 1/127/6) (Non- producing). According to RIGVEDA, the fields used to be alertly new. This fact indicates, that there was the personal ownership, of the filed for farming. This conclusion is supported by one SUKTA of RUGVEDA (8/91/5), in which, the ownership of Apala, over the productive filed of his father, is considered similar to his personal right on the HAIRS of his head. The separation of land (Urvarajit) etc., is also, admissible as per that principle. It appears, that the use of the word ‘Bhumi Ka Swami’ (RIGV. 8/21/3), in the case of GOD, is only the transcription or transfer of the personal adective, (Urvarapati). The conquest of the fields, is referred to in Taitariya Sam. (3;2); Kathak (5;2) Maikayani (4;12;3). The opinion of Pishal (Vaidishe Studiyan - 2.2404 to 207) is, that, the wealth in the form of grass, was available, on all the four sides, of the agricultural land. In VAIDICliterature, there is no reference of any personal wealth, or agriculture, in the Lordship of any complete race. (Beden Pavel - Indian Village Community - 1899).

The filed and house (Aitanani), are included, in the examples of wealth, stated in, Chhandyogya Upanishad (7,24,2). In most cases, the family used to keep all the shares of land, in one united for, instead of its division. The rules concerning the Heredity of the land, were not existing, before the ‘SUTRAS’ (Gautam Dharm Sutra - 18.5); (Bodha Dharm 2.2.3) (Aap Dharm 2.6.14).

The Vaidic literature, gives much less information, about the Economic System of the Villages. There is no evidence, which proves that people had the ‘Collective Right’, over the land. As stated earlier, the personal right over the land, was familiar. But, in practice, it meant that, it was the right of the whole family, and not any single individuals. Even then, the reference of ‘persons, having ambition to rule the Village’ (Gram-Kam), a mystic word, (Vyahruti), is found in the later ‘Sanhita’ (Taitti. 2,1,1,2). (Aitra. 2,1,9) etc. This indicates the system, that, as far as, the question of CROPS (Fasal) was concerned,the KING used to hand over his political special rights,of governing the village, to his beloved persons only. Beden Pavel (Ref. - ‘Indian Village Community’) thinks, that some time later, the thought prevailed, that the KING was the Lord of the Land. Another thought, parallel to this, came to birth, and the people who seized the land, in the manner quoted above, were known as ‘Jamidar’ (Land owner). But, in Vaidic Literature, there is no reference, other than the words, ‘Gram Kam’, which can support and prove, either of these two thoughts.

The opinion of Pishal (REF.:- Videshe Studiyan 2.205) is that the Vaidic word ‘Khil or Khilya’, mean the flat land, which is not divided into different parts, due to the standing crops, in between, and which is used by the cattle of the Society for grazing. Olden Berg defines its meaning, as the land, lying in between the agricultural lands, but which is not barren. This is in accordance with the fact, that during the Vaidic period also, the various systems of farming, were prevailing. In Vaidic literature, there is one word ‘Aranya’. It means, the attractive land, outside the village, which is not necessarily barren. Its difference from agricultural land, and ‘Ghar’ (Ama. RIGV. 6,24,10), is clarified, and, it is far away, from the living locality.

METHOD OF AGRICULTURE: - (Krushi Karm) The review of the various methods of agriculture, in Vaidic Period, definitely reveals, that farming at that time also, was similar to the present one. No doubt, the Indian Aryans were familiar with the farming methods, even before the separation from IRANIANS. This becomes clear from the similarity between the mystic words ‘Yavankrush’ and ‘Sasya’ from RIGVEDA, and ‘Hahaya’ and “Yao Karesh”, from AVESTA. The meaning of these words, is “the seeds sown by ploughing” and “the food reaped from that”.

But this point is also important, that the mystic words relating to ploughing, are available only in “MANDAL - 1 (first), and 10 (TENTH) only, of RIGVEDA.”, and are rarely available in related (Pariwarik) MANDAL (2 to 7). The credit of starting agriculture, is attributed to Pruthvi Vainya, in ATHARV. 8,10,24). According to RIGVEDA RIG. 8/22/6), Ashwino was the first, to teach the Aryans, the art of sowing (bowing) the seeds, with the help of a plough (Vruk), (Dashashyanta ........ Karvayaha). The later ‘Brahman’ and ‘Sanhita’ have repeatedly described the art of Agriculture.

During Vaidic Age, the fields (Urvar Kshetra) were made proper for sowing seeds, by the use of a plough. The plough was commonly known as ‘Lagal’ or ‘Sir’, and its front sharp part, was known as ‘Fal’. The handle of the plough, used to be very smooth (Sumatitsakh, ATHARV. 3/17/3). One long Bamboo (Isha) was tied to the plough, over which, one YOKE (Yug), was being placed. The oxen were tied to this yoke, using the ropes around their necks. The plough was pulled and drawn by 6,8 or 12 bullocks, and from this number, we can imagine the heavy weight, and big size of the plough.

The ploughman (Kina) used to drive the bullocks, with the help of, the pointed iron stick, (Toya). Generally, the VAISHYAS (Vaishya) used to carry out the farming, in Vaidic Age. The fields were rich crop - producing. If they were not capable of producing good crops, the MANURES (crop-nourishing agents), were used. The cow - dung (Karish), was used for this purpose. The natural Waste - products of the animals, was considered as important fertiliser, for the fields, as stated in ATHARV. 4/2/9.

The different actions concerning Agriculture, are clearly stated in Shatpath Brahman (1,6,1,3), as follows :- ploughing (Krushantaha); sowing (Vapantaha); harvesting (Lunantaha); crushing (Mrunantaha). The ripe crop was cut with a hack - saw (Datra, Sruni), tied in different bundles (Parn); and was dumped in godowns (Khal). After that, it was sieved through sieves (Titad) or jerked (Shubh), for separating corn, from the husk, and grassy portion, (RIG. 10/71/2). The person who used to jerk it, was known as ‘Dhanyakrut’ (RIGV. 10/24/13). The food crop was measured, by filling it, in a measuring - vessel, called ‘Udar’
The varieties of acquired food - products, are not distinctly described in RIGVEDA, and hence keep us, in darkness. For instance, the meaning of the word ‘Yav’ is obscure, and that of ‘Dhana’ also, is not clear. The situation is different in the later ‘Sanhita (Baj Sanhita). In that, there is the word (Breehi) (RICE), and the word ‘Yav’, which means ‘Jo’ (Satu; Barley), and the name of one of its varieties, is (Upawak). The substances ‘Mudrag’, ‘Mash’, ‘Tila’ and other varieties of food, like Anu, Khalva, Godham, Niwar, Piyadg, Masur, Shyamak are also stated, and ‘Urvaru’, ‘Urvaruk’ were also known. It is not certainly known, whether, the Fruit trees were planted, or they were growing naturally, in the forests. (There is reference of plucking ripe fruits, in RIG. 3/45/4). But the reference of ‘Karkandh’, ’Kuval’, ‘Vadar’ is available, very often.

THE SEASONS (Rutu)
The seasons of Farming, are described in short, in Taitiriya Sanhita (7,2,10,2) - “It gets ripe, in Summer, and, no doubt, it was sown, during WINTER season, as is the practice, in modern INDIA. RICE gets ripe in AUTUMN Season, and is sown, in the beginning of Rainy Season (Varsha) ‘Mash’ (Udid) and ‘Til’ (sesamum) are sown during the Rain in Summer, and get ripe in Winter Season.” According to Taitiriya Sanhita (5,1,7,3), the crop (Sasya) was cut, twice during the year. As state in Kaushitaki Brahman (19.2), the seeds sown during Winter, get ripe upto the month ‘CHAITRA’ (Chaitra).

The farmers had to face, a number of calamities. The animals living in the holes of the ground (e.g. Rats,Chhachhudar), used to spoil the seeds. The birds, and serpent - like other animals (Upakwas, Jamya, Tard, Patang) damage the new buds, and the excess Rain - fall, as well as, the drought, hamper the crops. The ATHARV - VEDA describes the auspicious Chants, for the protection from such calamities. As stated in Chhandogya, the insects called ‘Matchi’, also destroy crops to a large extent. Sometimes, they destroy the crops completely. There is a reference, of one incident, that the whole, ‘Kuru Janpad’ was destroyed by ‘Matchi’ insects, in Chhandogya 1/10/1 (“Matchi Hateshu Kurushu”).
IRRIGATION (Sinchai)
During that Era, the method of Irrigation was prevailing. In one chant, two types of water, are described - Khanitrima (produced by digging), and Swayam Ja (Naturally prevailing - river water etc. - (RIGV. 7/49/2). References of ‘Kup’ (Well), ‘Avat’ (ditches created by digging) are available in many places, inRIGVEDA. The water of these wells, never diminished. The water from the well, was drawn out, with the wheels, created from stones. (Ashmachakra), to which, the pots that can hold water, were tied, by the Ropes (Barwa) (RIGV. 11/25/4). After drawing the water from the well, it was poured into the wooden receptacle (Aahav). The wells were used, not only for drawing water for the people and animals, but also, for Irrigation of the fields, some times. The well - water would reach the fields, by flowing through, wide lanes prepared (RIGV. 8/69/12) and make them fertile. This method of drawing water from wells, still prevails in some areas around Punjab and Delhi. The word ‘Kusya’ is also available in Rigveda. Mueer is of the opinion, that, this probably indicates the artificial water-flows, that fall into the well.

DEVATA (Kshetrapati)
The agriculture was so important and useful, for the living of Aryans, that they believed in the might of one GOD named ‘Kshetrapati’ and have prayed to him for making their Lands fertile with crops. The description of ‘Kshetrapati’ is available in RIG. Mandal 4/57 sutra, and one of the chants, is as follows :-“Shunam Naha Fala .......... Datt”.

MEANING :- “Our Phal should happily dig out the earth, from ground. The plough-men (Kinash) should pleasantly, plough the fields, with the help of bullocks. He should bestow happiness, by pouring water, sweet like Honey (Mahamadhu), and Shunasir should create happiness in our minds.”


India is an agricultural country since ages. Agriculture has been referred in Vedas and many other ancient scriptures. In Bhagawad Gita Lord Vishnu has identified himself as the tree of Ashawatha (Pipal)
Ashwatha Sarva Vrukshanam, Devarshinam Cha Narada I
Gandharvanam Chitra Ratha,  Sidhanam  Kapilo Muni II
(Chapter 10, Shlok 26)
Pipal is a tree which releases Oxygen even during night time also, while other trees release Oxygen during day time (Phenomenon of Photosynthesis) and Carbon dioxide during night time (Phenomenon of Respiration). It means that processes of Photosynthesis and Respiration were known to our forefathers. In Atharva ved 300 varieties of various trees has been listed. Obviously, agriculture was known to us since vedic times.
‘Krishi Parashar’ is the first treatise on agriculture in whole world. Mahrishi Parashar son of Muni Shakti was the grandson of Mahrishi Vashista, Kulguru of Maharaja Dashrath of Ayodhya. He has also worked on medicine and wrote another text ‘Vrukshaurved’. In Krishi parashar he has dealt at length about rain, rain forecasting, rain measurement and field crops. The unit of rain was defined as “Adhaka”. While, tree plantation its types, raising of nursery, grafting and transplanting have been described in Vrukshaurved. Medicinal usages of different plants and its application as pesticides etc. have also been described by him. Subsequently, Garga Muni dealt with the cultivation practices of various crops. Mahrishi Kashyap has also explained agriculture in his ‘Kashyapi-krishi-sukti’ exclusively.
Subsequently, Varahmihir explained the techniques of rain forecasting at length in his “Varah Samhita”. He explained the unit of rain measurement as ‘Drona’. Those techniques of rain forecasting are applicable even today. Shurpala explained ‘Vrukshaurved’ and perfected many techniques. Kautilya in his ‘Arthashastra’ gave crop yield forecasting methods and described agriculture as the basis of business and trade. Balkundi(1998) mentions Parashar as one of the Acharyas (Professor) of Kautilya.
In whole world, cultivation of paddy (Oryza Sativa. Ind.), originated from India and went to Brhmadesh (Burma) and Syam (Thailand). From there it spread to Vietnam and Java, Sumatra and Bali islands (Indonesia). Some varieties of paddy were evolved there and its latin name became (Oryza Sativa. Jav. ). Then it moved to Philippines and Japan. Again, some new varieties were added there and its latin name became (Oryza Sativa. Jap.). Finally, cultivation of paddy spread to China, Mongolia and Korea. Thus, cultivation of paddy originated from India and spread to whole eastern part of the globe. Today rice is the main crop of these countries and staple food of their diet. Rice is produced maximum and is the no. one crop of the world. India, with 95 Mt (2010) of production is the second largest producer of rice. Rice is having 2,40,000 varieties, out of which 60,000 varieties are from India. Its gene code has been fully deciphered, in which Indian Scientists are having a sizable contribution.
In Krushi-Parashar he has described seed treatment of paddy, nursery preparation, transplanting of seedlings and thrashing. He said that farmer should make pillar for thrashing made of nyagrodha (Ficus benghalensisL.;banyan), saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br.), gambhari (Gmelinaarborea Roxb.). silk cotton tree (Bombax malabaricum DC.), or audambari (Ficus glomerata Roxb.). In absence of vata (F.benghalensis) etc. wood for the pillar should be produced from a tree bearing a feminine name. It should be protected by neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaves and mustard (Brassica sp.) and should be equipped with a flag. It is clear that these trees were known during that period.
Before taking up the final harvesting peasants should celebrate. After meals unguents and perfumes containing the four items Sandal, Camphor, Saffron and musk should be offered to them. Naturally, sandal, camphor and saffron were cultivated and grown during those days.
Sugarcane cultivation started from Ayodhya and that part of the country. Extraction of juice, making of jaggery,batasha, khand, saboni, bura and finally making of sweets started from there and then spread to whole India. Britishers took gentle farmers of that area to Mauritius, African countries and up to Fiji. They were forced to remove the deep forest and introduce cultivation of sugarcane. Thus, sugarcane cultivation started from India and spread to whole western globe.
The cultivation of cotton also started from India. From cotton lint they made fibre and then cloth. The quality of cotton and fabric was so good that it was a fancy to have a dress made of Indian fabric. Dhaka’s muslin cloth was a novelty in fineness. Plane silk and gold and silver fibre designs in silk were an art form of Vanaras and Kanjivaram. Thus, while whole world was bearing tree leaves India was at the glory of Agriculture. World revered India as Jagatguru.
Amoungst the oil seeds Sesame (Til) and mustard were well known to our forefathers. Cultivation of Sesame, oil extraction its multiple usages as cooking medium and as medicine have been described at various places. On Sankranti day Til laddu Gazak, Revadi, Chikki are used which are supposed to be good for health. Mustard oil has been used as cooking medium and for preparation of pickels. Mustard oil was also used for massage.
Black gram (Udid), and Green gram (Mung bean) were the source of proteins in vegetarian diet. Not only that mung also improves the memory. These are the most popular pulses cultivated by our forefathers. Udid is also used in Shradha along with til.
Not only this, cultivation of mango spread from India to other parts of the world. Indians of different states are very proud of their mango varieties and considers them as unique; it may be Hapus (Alphonso) of Maharashtra, Kesar of Gujarat, Dashahri of Uttar Pradesh or Neelam of Andhra Pradesh. Even today 50% share in world trade of mango is of India.
People from other countries were queuing up to have a trade with India especially of turmeric, fenugreek, cumin, fennel, black paper, cardamom, clove, nutmeg etc. Kerala, Karnataka, and Goa were famous for their spices and condiments.
It was not only the crops and their cultivation practices which were developed by our forefathers, but farm implements and processing technique were also developed. For farm operation Axe (Kulhadi), Plough (hal) and other tools were used. Axe has resemblance with parshu of Bhgawan Parshuram, while plough is the main weapon of Balram. For processing of cotton Ginning process was developed to separate seed from lint but also the spinning wheel (charkha) was invented for spinning and making the thread. Of course looms were invented to weave yarn and make cloth. Needle was the main instrument to stitch the cloths and for doing all types of embroidery.
Iron pans of various sizes were made to prepare jagery from sugarcane juice and then to prepare other sweet products. The revolution was done by bullock cart, which was used for the transport of goods and human. The pottery changed the scenario of cooking and eating and storage of water, food grains etc..
India has variable climate. Temperatures increases from north to south while, rainfall decreases from east to west. Soils are deeper in valleys, along the coast of rivers and in north while, it becomes shallow as you move inland and towards the south. Thus various agro climatic zones are created. The country has been divided in 127 agro-climatic zones for understanding the uniqueness of climate of that part of India. Being a tropical country it is blessed with ample sunshine and favourable temperatures. Also average annual rainfall is around 1116 mm. Thus, God has blessed us with best of natural resources. Therefore most of the agricultural crops can be raised in India. Export not only of cotton textile, but also of rice, wheat, sugar, fruits and vegetables and all types of spices and condiments can be made.
India can become the hub of agricultural trade of the world.

Crops of Indian Origin:
Rice
Barley
Sugarcane
Cotton
Black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hepper)
Green  gram (Vigna radiata,)
Sesame –Sesamum Indica
Sandal- Indian sandalwood (Santalum album)
Mango
Coconut
Areca nut
Betel- Indian paan (Piper betle)
Black paper
Cardamom
Clove
Nutmeg
Camphor
Saffron crocus (Kesar)
Turmeric
Lotus
Basil leaf
Herda (Terminalia chebula)
Baheda (Terminalia Belerica)
Aamla-(Phyllanthus emblica )
Bel-Stone apple
Kabeeth- Hard apple
Ber (Ziziphus Mauritiana)
Jamun (Syzygium cumini)
Gular (Ficus racemosa)
Palash (Butea monosperma)
Arjun (Terminalia arjuna 
Ashoka (Saraca indica)
Chironji (Buchanania Latifolia)
Ragi Mudde

Agricultural Machines/Implements Developed in Ancient India:
Axe (Kulhadi)
Mattock (Phawada)
Trowel (Khurpi)
Plough (Hal)
Sickle (Hasia)
Wing (Sup for Winnowing the grains)
Needle
Ginning wheel
Spinning wheel (Charkha)
Looms for weaving the clothing
Clay pots (Pottery)
Pan (Kadhai for heating)


32 comments:

  1. Hi Uday,

    This is Dr Amita Kaushal, Editor of Heritage Amruth magazine, published from Bangalore. I found your article on Vedic Agriculture interesting and would like to seek your permission to publish the same in the forthcoming issue of our magazine, the focus of which is on VRIKSHAYURVEDA.

    Kindly get back to me at amitakaushal@homail.com or amruth@frlht.org

    Thanks & regards,
    Amita

    ReplyDelete
  2. Go ahead i don't have any objection... :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Uday, can you recommend me a book where i can find more about verdi agriculture. I heard all thsi is written down in one of the verdic texts, but i cant find any thing

      Delete
  3. I have an acre of farm land & would like to take up Vedic Farming. Can anyone assist on renumeration ? Thanks in advance.

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